Anatomy and Physiology

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Secondary active transport in the nephron Opens a modal.


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Introductory urinary system quiz Get 7 of 10 questions to level up! Hematologic system introduction. What's inside of blood? Red blood cells Opens a modal. Blood types Opens a modal. Blood cell lineages Opens a modal. Life and times of RBCs and platelets Opens a modal. Hemoglobin Opens a modal. Hemoglobin moves O2 and CO2 Opens a modal. Fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit Opens a modal. Oxygen content Opens a modal. How do we make blood clots?

Coagulation cascade Opens a modal. Bohr effect vs. Haldane effect Opens a modal. Immunologic system introduction. Role of phagocytes in innate or nonspecific immunity Opens a modal. Types of immune responses: Innate and adaptive, humoral vs. B lymphocytes B cells Opens a modal. Helper T cells Opens a modal. Cytotoxic T cells Opens a modal. Clonal selection Opens a modal. Self vs. How white blood cells move around Opens a modal. Inflammatory response Opens a modal. Gastrointestinal system introduction.

Meet the gastrointestinal tract! Mouth Opens a modal. Teeth Opens a modal. Esophagus Opens a modal. Stomach Opens a modal. Small intestine 1: Structure Opens a modal. Small intestine 2: Digestion Opens a modal. Small intestine 3: Absorption Opens a modal. Liver Opens a modal. Hepatic lobule Opens a modal. Biliary tree Opens a modal. Exocrine pancreas Opens a modal. Endocrine pancreas Opens a modal.

Colon, rectum, and anus Opens a modal. Control of the GI tract Opens a modal.

Anatomy and Physiology of Muscular System

Nervous system introduction. Introduction to neural cell types Opens a modal. Anatomy of a neuron Opens a modal. Overview of neuron structure Opens a modal. Overview of neuron function Opens a modal.

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Sodium-potassium pump Opens a modal. Correction to sodium-potassium pump video Opens a modal. Electrotonic and action potentials Opens a modal. Saltatory conduction in neurons Opens a modal. Synapse structure Opens a modal. Neuronal synapses chemical Opens a modal. Types of neurotransmitters Opens a modal. Types of neurotransmitter receptors Opens a modal. Structure of the nervous system Opens a modal.

Functions of the nervous system Opens a modal. Motor unit Opens a modal. Peripheral somatosensation Opens a modal. Muscle stretch reflex Opens a modal. Autonomic nervous system Opens a modal. Upper motor neurons Opens a modal. Somatosensory tracts Opens a modal. Cerebral cortex Opens a modal. Muscular system introduction.

Myosin and actin Opens a modal. How tropomyosin and troponin regulate muscle contraction Opens a modal. Role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells Opens a modal. Anatomy of a skeletal muscle cell Opens a modal. Three types of muscle Opens a modal. Motor neurons Opens a modal. Neuromuscular junction, motor end-plate Opens a modal. Type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers Opens a modal.

Calcium puts myosin to work Opens a modal. Muscle innervation Opens a modal. Autonomic vs somatic nervous system Opens a modal. Thermoregulation by muscles Opens a modal. Introductory musculatory system quiz Get 14 of 20 questions to level up! Advanced musculatory system quiz Get 14 of 20 questions to level up! Skeletal system introduction. Skeletal structure and function Opens a modal.

Microscopic structure of bone - the Haversian system Opens a modal. Cellular structure of bone Opens a modal. Skeletal endocrine control Opens a modal. Cartilage Opens a modal. Ligaments, tendons, and joints Opens a modal. Endocrine system introduction. Endocrine gland hormone review Opens a modal. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland Opens a modal. Hormone concentration metabolism and negative feedback Opens a modal.

Types of hormones Opens a modal. In addition to the course themes of: Structure and Function, Homeostasis, Levels of Organization, and Integration of Systems, this course has the following units:. Quiz: Cardiovascular System: Structures and Functions. Quiz: Cardiovascular System: Integration of Systems 1.

Quiz: Cardiovascular System: Integration of Systems 2. OLI system requirements, regardless of course :. Some courses include exercises with exceptions to these requirements, such as technology that cannot be used on mobile devices. Students are prompted for payment during the OLI course registration process, and can pay with a credit card or an OLI Payment Code purchased from your campus bookstore. Bulk discounts and alternative payment arrangements are available, including institutional or departmental payments.

Learn about discounts and payment options. Instructors who teach with OLI courses benefit from a suite of free tools, technologies, and pedagogical approaches. Learning and participation data is displayed in the Learning Dashboard. Read more. Learning Engineering is the virtuous cycle of iterative improvement of learning content, instructional technologies, and the greater scientific research community.

OLI courses can be deployed with preferences in dozens of areas, including:. Watch the video to see how easily students can register with a Course Key. Category: Life Sciences. Description What students will learn Learning objectives by module Course assessments, activities, and outline Other course details System requirements Cost and payment options Included instructor tools Description You probably have a general understanding of how your body works.

The themes are: Structure and function of the body , and the connection between the two. Levels of Organization , the major levels of organization in the human organism from the chemical and cellular levels to the tissues, organs and organ systems. Integration of Systems , concerning which systems are subsets of larger systems, and how they function together in harmony and conflict. What students will learn By the end of this course, students will learn or be able to: Comprehend how all of the intricate functions and systems of the human body work together to keep you healthy.

Approach the study of the body in an organized way. Begin to think and speak in the language of the domain while integrating the knowledge you gain about anatomy to support explanations of physiological phenomenon. Understand a full view of what the human body is capable of and of the exciting processes going on inside of it. Unit 2: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Module 2: Anatomy and Physiology Introduction Classify individual body system functions based on their contribution to vital human functions.

Use a thematic framework to make sense of the different components of anatomy and physiology. Use body planes and directional orientation to describe the locations of body structures. Module 3: Introduction of Systems Describe the cardiovascular system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other. Describe the digestive system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other.

Describe the endocrine system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other. Describe the integumentary system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other. Describe the lymphatic system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other.

Describe the muscular system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other. Describe the nervous system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other. Describe the respiratory system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other.

Describe the skeletal system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other. Describe the urinary system: list the major organs and structures, describe the major functions, and use anatomical planes and directional terms to identify organs and their relationships to each other.

List the organ systems of the human body, and identify the main organs for each. Unit 3: Levels of Organization Module 4: Levels of Organization Introduction Describe, in order from simplest tomost complex, the major levels of organization in the human organism.


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Module 5: Chemistry Define an acid and a base and locateeach on a pH scale. Define atoms, molecules andmacromolecules and list their hierarchical assembly. Describe how amphipathicstructures of lipids lead to compartmentalization. Describe how lipids are distributed in acell membrane. Describe the basic structure ofamino acids. Describe the four levels ofprotein structure and discuss the importance of protein structure in function. Describe the structure and differenttypes of carbohydrates. Describe the structure of DNA andits role in protein synthesis. Discuss how atoms combine via ionic and covalent bonds to form molecules.

Discuss how control of DNAexpression is related to cell properties. Discuss the physiologicallyimportant properties of water and how these properties are functions of the molecularstructure. Identify biologically relevantatoms and use atomic information to calculate molecular weight. List and describedifferent protein functions within different cell types.

List and explain the threemajor functions of carbohydrates. List the four essentialmacromolecules in physiology. Explain how properties of the substructure relate to thefunction of the macromolecule. Module 6: The Cell Define and describe the functions of major cellularorganelles in human cells. Define filtration andprovide examples of molecules that move across membranes via filtration. Define the term cell and describe how cellstructures relate to function. Identify and briefly describe the three main parts of acell.

Describe endocytosis andexocytosis as a means of moving materials across the membrane. Describe the componenets and structure of a cellmembrane. Describe the environment in which diffusion will occur. Provide examples ofsubstances that move by simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion Describe the process of activetransport, its energy requirements, and list examples of substances that useit. Describe the process ofosmosis and explain the effects of hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic conditions on cellsand water shifts in the human body.

Identify and describe the stagesof somatic cell division including interphase and mitosis. Describe how cell number ismaintained and the processes associated with cell death: apoptosis and necrosis. Module 7: Higher Order Structures Define organ. Discuss the organ levelwithin the larger hierarchy of human physiology. Define tissue. List the four majortissue types and organ systems associated with each.

Discuss how the organ systems worktogether in the whole body and how the body interacts with the environment to impactphysiology. Unit 4: Homeostasis Module Integration of Systems Explain how different organ systems relate to one another to maintain homeostasis. Module 8: Homeostasis and Feedback Loops Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback in terms of the relationship between stimulus and response.

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Define homeostasis and describe the multiple levels of homeostatic maintenance in physiology. List the components of a feedback loop and explain the function of each. Provide an example of a negative feedback loop. Describe the specific structures organs, cells or molecules included in the feedback loop. Provide an example of a positive feedback loop. Module 9: Homeostatic Maintenance Describe how abnormalities in homeostatic feedback loops lead to disease states. Predict the types of problems that would occur if homeostasis could not be maintained. Identify and discuss components of the skeletalsystem.

Review common facts and myths about the skeletalsystem. Compare and contrast the bones andthe functions of the Axial and Appendicular divisions of the skeleton. Describe the classificationof bone based on shape. Describe the functionalclassification of articulations, based on degree of movement allowed—synarthrotic,amphiarthrotic, and diarthrotic—and provide examples of each type. Describe the three maincomponents of a long bone. Identify and label the bones of theaxial skeletal system. Identify and label the bones ofthe appendicular skeleton.

Integrate the functions of thedifferent skeletal system components to the system functions. Module Skeletal Levels of Organization Compare intramembranous andendochondral intracartilaginous bone formation. Describe the effects of afracture and the most common types of fractures. Describe the functions of theinorganic extracellular matrix components in osseous bone tissue.

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Describe the functions of theorganic extracellular matrix components in osseous bone tissue. Describe the mechanics of bonerepair and aging. Integrate the levels of organizationin the skeletal system and their functional interconnections. List the cell types andextracellular matrix components in the osseous bone and describe theirfunction.

Visually identify microscopicand macroscopic bone structures. Module Skeletal Homeostasis Describe the cellular andextracellular matrix reorganization that occurs in response to stress force onbones. Describe the passive and activeresponses that occur in cartilage when stress force on the tissue changes. Describe two disorders of the skeletal system that can result from calcium deficiency.

Explain how the skeletal systemand endocrine system interact for calcium homeostasis. Module Skeletal Integration of Systems Discuss ways in which other bodysystems integrate with the skeletal system. Identify and discuss components of the muscular system. Review common facts and myths about the muscular system. Module Muscular Structures and Functions Define the terms muscle tone, hypotonia and hypertonia. Define the terms prime mover or agonist , antagonist, synergist and fixator and provide an example of each.

Define the terms: aponeuroses, tendons, bursae. Describe different fiber organization parallel, convergent, pinnate, sphincter and how the organization is related to functions. Describe the composition of the connective tissue layer that surrounds each cell, fascicle, muscle and group of muscles. Describe the difference between isometric and isotonic contractions of muscle. Differentiate among the three classes of levers in terms of the relative position of fulcrum, effort and load, as well as in terms of the relative power and range of motion.

Module Muscular Levels of Organization Compare and contrast the structure, location in the body and function of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. Define and describe the functions of major cellularorganelles in human cells. Describe how the parallel organization of a sarcomere relates to force generation; predict what effect changes in filament overlap would have on muscle function.

Describe myoblast fusion to generate multinucleated skeletal muscle cells and tissue structure. Describe the anatomy of the neuromuscular junction. Describe the difference between tetanus and treppe. Describe the different structural levels of skeletal muscle organization. Describe the interaction of actin and myosin in force generation. Identify which cofactors ions and proteins regulate actin-myosin force generation.

Describe the mechanisms that muscle fibers use to generate ATP for muscle contraction. Describe the process of activetransport, its energy requirements, and list examples of substances that useit. Describe the sequence of events involved in the contraction cycle of skeletal muscle. Describe the specialized structures of muscle cells.

Explain how an electrical signal from the nervous system is communicated to muscle cells. Explain how the cellular organization of fused skeletal muscle cells allows muscle tissue to contract properly. Explain the effects of summation and recruitment on muscle contraction. Explain the three phases twitch undergoes as viewed on a myogram. Identify skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle cells by anatomical features.

List the anatomical and metabolic characteristics of fast, slow, and intermediate muscle fibers. List the sources of energy used in muscle contraction. Module Muscular Homeostasis Describe how an improperly functioning skeletal muscular system would affect other systems. Describe several factors that can affect the endurance of muscles.

Explain the role of the muscular system in maintaining temperature homeostasis. Provide examples of factors that can affect muscle size. Module Muscular Integration of Systems Describe how an improperly functioning skeletal muscular system would affect other systems. Describe how muscle tissue within the cardiovascular system contributes to proper function. Describe how muscle tissue within the digestive system contributes to proper function. Unit 7: Integumentary System Module Integumentary System Introduction Explore common facts and myths about the integumentarysystem.

Explore examples of homeostasis in the integumentary system. Identify and discuss components of the integumentarysystem.


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Module Integumentary Structures and Functions Describe the main function of each layer of the integumentary system. Module Integumentary Levels of Organization Contrast the structure and function ofeccrine merocrine glands, apocrine glands, and sebaceous glands. Describe four functions of hair. Describe how the distribution of adipose tissue differs based on gender,age, diet and exercise.

Describe how the molecular assembly of keratinsprovidesstrength to integumentary tissues. Describe inorder,from simplest to most complex, the major levels of organization of the integumentary system. Describe the complementaryfunctioningof the cells of the epidermis. Describe the differences between the three categories of skin cancer.

Describe the function of melanin and discuss the consequences of reduced melanin. Describe the functions of melanocytes. Describe the functions ofthe epidermis. Describe the production and function of vitamin D and discuss the consequences of reduced vitamin D. Describe the role of melanocytes inproducing skin pigmentation and also protecting mitotic cells inthestratum basale from UV damage.

Describe the structure and function offingernailsand toenails. Describe the structure and roles of the accessory structures of the integumentary system. Describe the structure of hair andof ahair follicle. Describe the three stages of hair growth. Describe the two different layers of the dermis.

Explain common causes of hair loss. Explain how wrinkles and stretch marks are related to the collagen and elastin fibers in the dermis. Explain why the histology of the dermisiswell-suitedfor its functions. Explain why the histology of theepidermis iswell-suitedfor its functions. Explain why the histology of thesubcutaneous layer iswell-suitedfor its functions. Identify and describe the layers ofthe epidermis, indicating which are found in thin skin and which are found in thickskin.

Identify and describe the subcutaneoustissue, including the tissue types making up subcutaneous tissue. Identify the cells of the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Identify the cells of theepidermis based on their location and anatomic structure stem cells ofthestratum basale, keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkelcells. Identify the tissue type makingup the epidermis. Module Integumentary System Homeostasis Compare homeostasis of cell numberand mitotic rate in the epidermis with pathologicalconditions,including psoriasis and skin cancer.

Comparethermoregulationby the integumentary systemas it pertainstosubcutaneous fat, hair,sweatand blood flow. Describe different sensory receptors located in the integumentary system. Describe how a medical professional can use changes in the appearance of the skin to predict certain medical conditions. Describe the cells involved in repairing damaged skin. Describe the effect ofscarringon regeneration of accessory structures. Explain changes in the integumentary system that occur because of puberty and advanced age.

Predict issues related to loss ofskin in burn victims forfirst-,second-andthird-degreeburns. Unit 8: Endocrine System Module Endocrine Structures and Functions Define homeostasis and describe the multiple levels of homeostatic maintenance in physiology. Describe the major functions of the endocrinesystem. Identify major diseases associated with the endocrine systemand their causes.

Module Endocrine Levels of Organization Compare the hormones secreted from organs with secondaryendocrine function and the primary function of these organs. Compare the production of hormones in the thyroid to otherendocrine glands. Define G-protein-coupled hormone receptors and describe howthey are messengers for signal transduction.

Define intracellular and plasma membrane hormone receptors and describe howthey impact cellular gene expression. Describe how hormones are involved in loops of homeostasisincluding positive feedback and negative feedback. Describe the endocrine glands and hormones involved in thereproductive system. Describe the precursor molecules of amino acidhormones.

Describe the precursor molecules of lipid-derived hormones and identify howlipid-derived hormones are transported. Describe the precursor molecules of peptide-derivedhormones. Describe the structure of the adrenal cortex and whathormones it produces. Describe the structure of the adrenal medulla and whathormones it produces. Describe the structure of the anterior pituitary and whathormones it produces. Describe the structure of the pancreas and whathormones it produces. Describe the structure of the parathyroid glands and whathormones these glands produce.

Describe the structure of the pineal gland and whathormones it produces. Describe the structure of the posterior pituitary and whathormones it produces. Describe the structure of the thyroid gland and whathormones it produces. Discuss how hormone receptors maintain specificity inendocrine regulation.

List and compare the mechanisms of hormonalstimulation. List the different locations for hormone receptors. List the endocrine glands, identify their locations within the body,and name the primary hormones that they secrete. List the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus and describe thefunctions that these hormones regulate.

Use anatomical terms to describe the location of the adrenal glandsand the layers of the adrenal glands. Module Endocrine System Homeostasis and Integration of Systems Describe differences between short-term and long-term stressresponses. Describe how endocrine function regulates growth and list thehormones involved in the process.

Describe how endocrine function regulates the femalereproductive system and list the hormones involved in the process. Describe how endocrine function regulates the homeostasis ofcalcium levels in the body and list the hormones involved in the process. Describe how endocrine function regulates the homeostasis ofglucose and list the hormones involved in the process. Compare the roles of insulin andthyroid hormones. Describe how endocrine function regulates the homeostasis ofwater in the body and list the hormones involved in the process.

Describe how endocrine function regulates the male reproductivesystem and list the hormones involved in the process. Describe how endocrine function regulates the production of milk andlist the hormones involved in the process. Describe how endocrine function regulates the reproductive system. List the hormones that are common to males and females.