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Learn more More Like This. Public Enemies Certificate: K Crime Drama. Black Work Crime Drama Thriller. A policewoman sets out to discover who murdered her husband, an undercover officer. Marchlands Drama Mystery. Having You Comedy Drama. Edit Cast Series cast summary: Anna Friel Ellie Manning 3 episodes, Marc Warren Greg Manning 3 episodes, Barnaby Kay Joe Lipton 3 episodes, Olivia Poulet Gwen Abbot 3 episodes, Simon Trinder Fergus 3 episodes, Tim Woodward Hugo Livingstone 3 episodes, Gina Bramhill Gemma 3 episodes, Heidi Monsen Milena Livingstone 3 episodes, Liam McMahon Johnny Lansdowne 2 episodes, Clive Wood David Shaw 2 episodes, Pippa Haywood Frances Shaw 2 episodes, Hannah Walters Alison 2 episodes, Katie West Tania 2 episodes, Rita Davies Edit Storyline Ellie's beloved husband is killed in a car accident.
Edit Details Country: UK. Language: English. Color: Color High Definition. Edit Did You Know? Trivia Despite starring a largely Northern cast and including library footage of central Manchester, the majority of the show was actually filmed in and around London in the South of England.
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Clear your history. IMDb Everywhere. Follow IMDb on. DPReview Digital Photography. Audible Download Audio Books. Ellie Manning 3 episodes, A smile breaks across your face. This seems pretty easy, you think; with a sigh of relief, the circle grows just a little bit more. This technique is known as neurofeedback. By linking brain activity to an image or sound in real time, we can use simple game-like techniques to get people to train themselves to forge new neural connections and voluntarily adopt or avoid certain mental states.
Like a thermometer going up and down according to temperature, the fact that people can see and hear what their brain is doing provides a lever that allows them to internally regulate their own mind, without the need to engage in more direct behavioural interventions. Neurofeedback represents a big leap for many clinical mental disorders such as phobias, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD — all of which can be difficult to address because the experience of them can be so overwhelming.
For these illnesses, cognitive behavioural therapy CBT is a standard treatment. But this is such an unappealing prospect that many people end treatments early, and interventions have a low success rate. This technology involves huge magnets that measure the flow of blood in different parts of the brain, a proxy for which areas are active at any given time. Crucially, we can do this without ever showing them any eight-legged nasties. Instead, using the cue of a circle or a pleasant tone, and the reward of watching it change shape or pitch, the person themselves finds alternative means of subduing neural activity in these regions.
In this way, the brain begins to modify its own internal states, and the phobia will subside as if by magic. This new, unconscious reprogramming has far-reaching implications for research on human cognition, tapping into the crux of the mind-body connection, and opening up many new opportunities for novel clinical treatments. But it also has a potential dark side: the risk that neurofeedback could become a back-door for manipulating our brain states, without us even realising it. T he up-and-down story of neurofeedback research began in an unlikely way: with a story about NASA, lunar jet fuel, and hallucinating cats.
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This was an example of Pavlovian or classical conditioning, where a creature learns a stimulus that triggers an involuntary response. It was one of the first demonstrations that this kind of conditioning could produce an effect on brain function, rather than just a behavioural reaction.
Later, Sterman went on to conduct another study involving cats, observing the effects of lunar-lander fuel on mammalian systems for NASA. Most of his feline subjects became unsteady on their feet, the fumes beginning a slow degeneration that progressed through hallucinations, seizures and, eventually, death. Somehow, each of these cats seemed to be able to regulate their neurological responses, and most recovered from the fumes.
Around this time, the cognitive researcher Joe Kamiya at the University of Chicago began conducting some of the first formal studies of neurofeedback.
Studies had shown that human subjects were able to voluntarily affect their heart-rate, skin temperature and sweat response. This was a form of operant conditioning — different to Pavlovian conditioning, because it was about learning to associate a voluntary behaviour, rather than a stimulus, with a particular reaction. Kamiya and his generation of researchers used a brain-imaging method known as electroencephalography EEG.
This involves placing a cap on the head, with a bunch of channels created by metal disks that are roughly a dime in diameter. They pick up electrical signals emanating out of the skull, and print them out as waves that provide information about how fast particular groups of neurons are firing together. In turn, these brainwaves can be linked to certain clinical conditions and brain states. For example, autism spectrum disorder is marked by excessive slow waves delta in the front of the brain. It seemed to work, and neurofeedback had its first boom. You can often find the same EEG signals from very different internal brain dynamics, many of which are not linked to intended clinical outcomes.
The signal is so coarse, in fact, that it can be influenced by many non-neural signals, such as clenching your teeth and blinking your eyes. A s the first flood of neurofeedback research began, many early studies had positive results. Reproducibility has become a huge headache for psychological research. In , hundreds of researchers engaged in a joint effort to recreate seminal psychology studies, 97 of which had originally produced significant results. When replicated, however, only 36 of the findings remained intact.
There are many reasons for this crisis, but one of the biggest failings of traditional experiments in human behaviour has been underpowered design. The problem was especially acute in these early neurofeedback studies. Not only were there too few participants to prove a real effect, but there were also likely to be serious self-selection biases among those who participated. People would often have to travel to clinical centres for several days or even weeks at a time, which meant that anyone who chose to do so probably shared certain features or were of a particular type.
So, what to do? Neurofeedback experiments often took many days — sometimes involving more than 20 training sessions — and the participants were always aware of the intended clinical outcomes.
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Looking back on these studies , many have not been replicated, while others have failed to show a difference when compared with a placebo. Those initial studies of cats and jet fuel, or of bells and operant conditioning in human beings, were covered up by a swell of unconvincing findings. As a result, neurofeedback gained a reputation as a pseudoscience.
The tidal wave of neurofeedback research quickly slowed to a trickle. The better part of three decades passed until fMRI stormed on to the scene in the s. Now, instead of vague information about brain states based on waves, we were able to derive 3D snapshots of exactly which brain areas are active during cognition. You could create lasting change in brain activity just by thinking that you are undergoing an intervention. With this new technology in hand, researchers began trying to teach people to regulate specific brain regions.
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This was a major boost for neurofeedback. Not only could scientists make sure that they were creating the intended brain changes in their clinical interventions, right down to the specific cubic-millimetre regions they intended to train; but this same technology could also prove that the brain had undergone a profound change.
Studies began to show that teaching individuals to regulate a single brain region in just a few clinical sessions could produce lasting changes in the way that brain region behaved — sometimes even months after the initial intervention. Because these new forms of neurofeedback were much more localised in brain space, it took far fewer sessions to create neuronal modifications than in previous EEG studies — reducing training from a dozen or more sessions to four or five.
However, this new brain-imaging method also proved something that no one had expected: you could also create lasting change in brain activity just by thinking that you are undergoing a real intervention. The problem with neurofeedback is in fact as old as placebo itself. In double-blinded, placebo-controlled neurofeedback studies, neither the researcher nor the participant is aware of whether they are receiving a true intervention.