Katolska kyrkan i Göteborg (Swedish Edition)
Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device.
You can download and read online Katolska kyrkan i Göteborg (Swedish Edition) file PDF Book only if you are registered here.
And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Katolska kyrkan i Göteborg (Swedish Edition) book.
Happy reading Katolska kyrkan i Göteborg (Swedish Edition) Bookeveryone.
Download file Free Book PDF Katolska kyrkan i Göteborg (Swedish Edition) at Complete PDF Library.
This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats.
Here is The CompletePDF Book Library.
It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Katolska kyrkan i Göteborg (Swedish Edition) Pocket Guide.
King Gustavus Adolphus ' daughter and successor Queen Christina had Catholic clergy invited to her court. She abdicated from the throne and converted to the Catholic faith. In the s, a Jesuit named Johannes Sterck was active in Sweden. He was originally a legation priest, but when the ambassador he served died, he stayed and initiated a mission instead. He was eventually sentenced to death, but was freed by mercy and exiled. In the s, Catholic textile workers arrived, primarily from the Holy Roman Empire ; these were granted limited freedom of religion.
Their visits to the legation chapels were accepted behind closed doors in order to celebrate mass, and in this way these chapels evolved into small parishes. From this time, Catholics were termed "foreign religious adherents". However, it would last some years till before Swedish conversions became decriminalised. In , a Catholic parish was formally founded in Stockholm. The members lacked suitable premises, however.
Therefore, until , Stockholm's Catholics celebrated mass in the Freemasons hall inside the building of today's Stockholm City Museum , which they were offered to rent for the purposes. He was a consecrated bishop and became the new apostolic vicar for Sweden. At this time also the Chapel of Eugenia was erected at Norrmalm , which stood finished in , but was demolished during the Redevelopment of Norrmalm in the s. Since it has been legal also for Sweden citizens to adhere to the Catholic Church without risking death penalty or exile.
Civil rights were still restricted, however: until it was forbidden for Catholics to become Members of Parliament , teachers , physicians , or nurses. Dr Albert Bitter was appointed apostolic vicar in In only some 2, Catholics in Sweden were registered. The psalm book Cecilia was published in In , the first edition of the news and cultural magazine Credo was released, today known as Signum. Sweden was no longer considered a missionary region, but enjoyed a more independent status. The same year, the Church of Saint Eric was granted the status of cathedral.
The Diocese of Stockholm , founded in , covers all of Sweden's territory, has more than , members and is one of Sweden's largest religious denominations. Its parish has about 8, members. Catholic priests are educated in Uppsala , with academic studies offered by the Newman Institute Uppsala. A part of the studies may be pursued at the Pontifical universities in Rome. The education typically lasts 7 years in total, covering studies in philosophy , theology , pastoral practical work, as well as spiritual and liturgical instruction.
In , the official youth association of the diocese was founded, Sveriges Unga Katoliker. In , the school moved to the diocese offices. In it moved to Enskede. Since the second half of the 20th century, Catholic immigrants have increased. Since the s, also converts have increased. Members of the Swedish Catholic Church can be divided in six main groups, in order from largest to smallest:. The Polish members are most numerous, and in most parishes people of Polish descent can be found.
In the larger towns they have their own masses , and in Stockholm one of the Protestant churches is used twice on Sunday since the Catholic churches are too small. Approximately one in three priests 42 of are born in Poland, and several others are Swedish-born but of Polish descent. Croatian believers from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina also typically have their own priests, a number that increased during the wars that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia.
Spanish speakers typically come from South America , mainly Chile , and most were political refugees who never fully integrated. Since most of the Chilean exiles were Marxists or secular liberals, they generally are not active church members. A large number are war refugees from Lebanon , Iraq , or more recently Syria , or their children.
Of the roughly , Catholics, few are ethnically Swedish. However, ethnically Swedish Catholics, most of whom are converts from Lutheranism, do form a majority of the traditionalist Catholics in the country. Bridget of Sweden — is the most famous Swedish Catholic saint. She founded the Bridgettines.
Her daughter, Catherine of Vadstena — was canonized in On 9 April , the church beatified Swedish nurse Maria Elisabeth Hesselblad — , founder of the Swedish chapter of the revived Catholic order of the Bridgettines. Pope Francis approved the second miracle attributed to her on 14 December which would allow for her future canonization; the date was decided at an ordinary consistory of cardinals on 15 March and was celebrated in Saint Peter's Square on 5 June From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Welcome to the Catholic Diocese of Stockholm
Middle East. North America. Latin America. See also: Diocese of Lund. See also: Diocese of Uppsala. Main article: Reformation in Sweden. See also: Apostolic Nuncio to Poland. Main article: Apostolic Vicariate. Main article: Roman Catholic Diocese of Stockholm. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on Retrieved Svenska kyrkan. Retrieved 14 August Stockholm: Katolsk kyrkotidning. Catholic Church in Sweden. Newman Institute. Caritas Catholic Cemetery Malteser International. Clare's Priory Stockholm St. John's Priory Kalmar St. Catholic Church in Europe. Christianity in Sweden.
- Syllabus for Studies in Church and Mission C.
- Un espoir si particulier (Collection Classique) (French Edition).
- Kristus Konungens katolska församling.
- Faulkner and the Discourses of Culture (Southern Literary Studies);
- News from the diocese.
- Spell of the Tiger: The Man-Eaters of Sundarbans.
- Navigation menu.
List of churches. There is no guarantee that it would produce a different result. The result has also given rise to racist and anti-foreigner feelings and verbal abuse. It will probably get worse. There is a nasty side to the English white working class which has always been an embarrassment to the left wing intellectuals who have patronised it and expected it to vote them into power. That it has come to surface is an ugly development on the face of a British political tradition which has usually listened and treated with respect those with different views.
I cannot help feeling that I am well out of it. A friend of mine is currently working temporarily at a home for elderly disabled people, run by a local authority near Gothenburg. Most of them have had strokes and are also suffering from dementia. Three times a week I get a telephone call about what a stressful day she has had. The home is understaffed, with six care staff for 35 residents. Her colleagues seem not to care.
The patients' calls for help can go unheeded for an hour or more. Care is inadequate. They don't even get enough water. They are allowed to lie in their own excrement for hours before they are changed. It does not help that most of the residents almost never receive a visit from their children. Having to work in such an institution is stressful, especially if one cares about the patients, wants to do the best for them and is actively prevented from doing so. If dogs were kept in conditions like that, those responsible would be prosecuted for cruelty.
It's not fair - new referendum please. The advocates of democracy, not liking the result, are now petitioning for a new referendum. This is a game that could go on indefinitely. The Bremain party are having a whinge today. The Brexiters, they claim, were stupid, xenophobes, racists, Little Englanders and old fogeys. Democracy is only good when the people vote the way you want them to. SMILE at us, pay us, pass us; but do not quite forget. For we are the people of England, that never have spoken yet.
There is many a fat farmer that drinks less cheerfully, There is many a free French peasant who is richer and sadder than we. There are no folk in the whole world so helpless or so wise. There is hunger in our bellies, there is laughter in our eyes; You laugh at us and love us, both mugs and eyes are wet: Only you do not know us. For we have not spoken yet. We hear men speaking for us of new laws strong and sweet, Yet is there no man speaketh as we speak in the street.
It may be we shall rise the last as Frenchmen rose the first, Our wrath come after Russia's wrath and our wrath be the worst. It may be we are meant to mark with our riot and our rest God's scorn for all men governing. It may be beer is best. But we are the people of England; and we have not spoken yet. Smile at us, pay us, pass us. But do not quite forget. These are the first and last verses. The ones in the middle are rambling and frankly, reprehensible, with a nasty line about a cringing Jew. Too often, Chesterton lets himself down.
But the first and last seem pertinent this morning. A map of political failure. Soros warns that " The Brexit crash will make you all poorer. Wouldn't politicians and other commentators who are so widely mistrusted do better to keep quiet if they want people to do what they say? Or do they not even realise that they are not trusted. Anyway, here is the link to his piece , but you will not be allowed to comment. However, his reasoning is interesting, since by implication he suggests that Brexit would remedy some of the long standing weaknesses of the British economy.
First, he predicts a fall in house prices, a bubble value if ever there was one. Second, he refers to the drying-up of capital inflows - which have been a major factor in the large-scale purchase of UK real estate by foreign "investors", particularly residential property in London, an influx of finance which has helped to make housing in London unaffordable for people working in London.
If this were to happen, British producers would enjoy an immediate and substantial competitive advantage. Euroland countries might then apply protectionist measures to punish their own people by depriving them of lower-cost UK goods. In the meantime, British firms would be able to make use of their other competitive advantages - the English language and proximity to ports - to develop trade outside the EU - ie most of the rest of the world.
Outside Europe, British consumers would also gain access to food outside the tariff wall. I wonder how much Soros stands to lose from a Brexit vote? This famous signature tune tune was written twenty five years before it was chosen for the BBC's longest-running radio soap, The Archers. This is the story. The music was picked at random by the producer, whose budget would not stretch to paying a composer to write something specially.
What would the programme be without it? A couple of weeks ago I wrote an blog piece about why the Introit should be sung. The Introit music is the signature tune for the Mass, and sets the theme for the day. Unlike the Archers' tune, the music was composed with the aim of setting precisely the right mood for the theme. Guardian writer slags of Catholic church. That is not exactly news but this time it is because of a "shameful silence".
The author writes "The Orlando killings would have been a perfect opportunity for the church to condemn the deep-rooted prejudice in our midst". Because of its timing, it is only today that the first opportunity would have arisen to pray for the victims at a Sunday Mass. I would be surprised if prayers were not offered at Masses on the following day. Only a couple of days before, I was at a Mass where the sermon was on just this point - it is a lie to accuse the Catholic church of being anti-gay. Fifteen men have been jailed for years for "systematically" grooming and sexually abusing teenage girls in Halifax - with one man getting 25yrs.
There have been similar cases in other parts of the country. This seems to be a trend. What lies behind it? It is good to see the Catholic community flourishing in what is said to be the most secular country in the world. It really is quite an attractive building. There is a very small pipe organ which has a lovely tone. The work has been done to a high standard However, the building would benefit from a re-ordering, with the altar re-positioned against the wall and the tabernacle immediately behind.
The lop-sided position of the tabernacle to the right of the sanctuary is ugly and confusing. The tabernacle should be in the same position as the Ark is in a synagogue, where the Scrolls of the Law are the focus and given pride of place. The position of the tabernacle - indeed, the entire architecture of a church, is a theological statement. It would also be helpful if the pot plants were removed from the altar step so that communion could be received kneeling. It is astonishing how much harm and confusion the misinterpretation of archaeological evidence has done. We need to get ourselves back on track.
What does Matthew 6 say about liturgy? Truly I tell you, they have received their reward. But when you give alms, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, so that your alms may be done in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you. But whenever you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you. But when you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, so that your fasting may be seen not by others but by your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.
Cavallin S, Used - AbeBooks
The priest, who has views on the subject, used it as a cue for a brief sermon about liturgy and the need for simplicity and understandability of the texts. However, this passage has nothing to do with the liturgy. Liturgy is the public prayer of the church. All religions have some form of prayer in public. The performance of the liturgy, like the performance of the ancient Temple ceremonies from which they are derived, is governed by the regulations set out in the relevant official documents of the church - the General Instructions and rubrics of the Missal and supporting guidelines such as Sacrosanctum Concilium and Summorum Pontificum.
The liturgy is prayer, but it is also sacred theatre. It is a set of actions and not a mere recital of texts. Its function is both to raise the hearts and minds of the people to God, and to convey the beliefs of the church in a way that the people can understand. The texts have a part to play, and of course people should know what is being said, but the liturgy engages all the senses; the text is part of an overall experience involving ceremonial, music and art, smell and taste, all within an appropriate architectural setting.
It is true that some people can become over-particular about the way the liturgy is performed. This applies both to those who wish to preserve tradition and those who would cast it aside. On the other hand, care should be taken to exclude that which gets in the way of the liturgy's function - whether it be unsuitable music or sloppy reading or an architectural setting which draws attention away from, or interferes with, the action.
The aim of the liturgy is nothing less than the transformation of the participants. A focus on just the text can lead to an intellectualisation of the faith, which then becomes a set of theoretical ideas rather than a change in state of being.
About the City of Gothenburg
Could this be one reason why we are failing to radicalise our young people? It is amazing the lengths the Bremainers are going to. This Guardian journalist has recruited the eighteenth-century painter Hogarth in support. Hogarth was making the point that Britain was dependent on the international economy, which it does. And the international economy does not stop at the borders of the EU. Another own-goal from a Bremainer. You have to wonder why they do it, because there are perfectly good arguments for remaining, which make it very difficult to come down on either side.
Like a lot of people, I have found it very difficult to make up my mind which way to vote at the referendum. A Brexit vote aligns one with the forces of xenophobia, illiberalism and worse. These attitudes are summed up in the rantings of the Daily Mail. A united Europe is a fine concept which has brought real benefits. A Brexit vote will trigger uncertainty. It will probably lead to the break-up of the EU and a possibly chaotic future.
On the other hand, the economics of EU membership work against the UK for geographical reasons which have not had much of an airing in the debate, but are a factor in the grotesque maldistribution of population and commerce in the UK, which are ever more sucked towards London and the South East. However, that is not a deciding factor.
I do not like the Daily Mail's rhetoric. For we are the people of England, that never have spoken yet" The values of the English are far from wholly reprehensible. They are being treated with contempt by the Bremainers. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the Guardian, which has run a Bremain campaign verging on the hysterical. Now whatever one thinks of the Guardian, it is, or was consistent in its support for social justice.
For at least the past couple of decades, however, its commentators have been consistently and well-intentionedly wrong in their analysis. This can be said of almost every issue they have become engaged in. They have been in denial about the effects of immigration, they have been in denial about the influence of Islam, and their views on issues as diverse as transport policy, environmental policy, housing and the economy have been wrong.
Their judgement is not to be trusted. Why is this? Probably because their views are, ultimately, derived from Rousseau, who believed in the perfectibility of human nature, a notion that, against all experience, has its origins in the Enlightenment. This faith, and it is a faith with no foundation in evidence or observation, has been a major influence in the educational changes of the past half-century, as these ideas, seeping out via Rudolf Steiner, become mainstream, disastrously for those who have been the subject of this experiment, who now govern us and tell us what to think.
It has two parallel narratives; that which is presented as a minor one, from which the novel takes its title, refers to an ideal community established according to principles advocated by J J Rousseau, or possibly de Sade. The community ends up destroyed, though we are not told how. To suggest a parallel between the EU and a Tower of Babel is not so far-fetched.. We should not base our decisions on the personality or track record of the views politicians and journalists, but it helps to understand where their views are derived from.
The Bremainers are the nicer people, but they are misguided. Brexit it is. So said the man's father after Omar Mateen killed 50 people at an Orlando gay club. Although details are still emerging, his father told NBC News that his son may been motivated by witnessing two men kissing in Miami a couple of months ago. This in an article "Queer Muslims exist — and we are in mourning too", in today's Guardian , in another attempt to distance from Islam terrorist actions committed by Muslims.
It convinces nobody. No comments are allowed, naturally, not on this or any of the several other articles on this incident. You begin to wonder what this newspaper's game is, so determined is it to shield Islam from criticism. The effect is to destroy what remains of the Guardian's credibility. The misdeeds committed in obedience to the teachings of Islam are getting all religion a bad name. Christianity and Judaism promote can intolerant attitudes too; the Old Testament is explicit on the subject Leviticus It is read on the afternoon of the Day of Atonement and is presumably where the Islamic teaching comes from.
- A Christian Rebuttal to Kevin & Alex Malarkeys The boy who came back from heaven.
- File:Kristus Konungens katolska kyrka (Hedendomen) i Göteborg 5883.jpg.
- Oh no, there's been an error.
- Relocation 101: Focus on Calgary.
- reach-language-selection | BMW Motorrad!
- The System Club Letters - 57 Big Ideas to Transform Your Business and Your Life.
However, both the Jewish tradition of interpretation, and Christian teaching always tempers what is written in the Old Testament. The Christian model is this Then the disciples were glad when they saw the Lord. As the Father has sent me, even so I am sending you.
If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you withhold forgiveness from any, it is withheld. Has no one condemned you? He certainly does not want anyone thrown off cliffs or tall buildings for sexual transgressions. This subject came up in a discussion last night, as part of someone's anti-Catholic diatribe. We need to be clear about this. The Crusaders behaved abominably.
They were, however, a necessary response to four centuries of aggression, at the request of the Byzantines who were in the front line and needed help. They ultimately failed. Or perhaps the Crusades have never really ended. The westward spread of Islam was not checked until when the Ottomans were defeated when they besieged Vienna. The Ottomans were slowly driven back from most of the Balkans and Greece.
However, the Christians of Asia Minor - the ancient communities of Armenians and Greeks, paid a terrible price at the beginning of the twentieth century, when three million died in the two genocides of and , at the break-up of the Ottoman Empire and the foundation of the state of Turkey. We should no more condemn the Crusades than we should condemn the Second World War on account of some of the acts of the British and US military during the course of that war. Hiroshima, Dresden and Hamburg, for example, do not negate the rightness of the war itself.
In the case of Crusades, we are judging men who have been dead for centuries by the standards of today. That is absurd. Bad things were done and we should admit that, but we should stop apologising for the Crusades as such. If there had not been four centuries of Muslim Arab aggression there would have been no Crusades. Navy's new destroyers will fail in the Gulf. It seems that it is not just transport projects that get messed up by civil servants. Defence procurement is another field of failure. The Guardian has published a couple more articles against HS2, one by specialist rail commentator Christian Wolmar, and another today by journalist Simon Jenkins.
The main arguments in favour will doubtless be wheeled out by the commentators: the need for capacity and the disruption caused by upgrading existing routes. HST itself will severely disrupt services to Euston during the construction period. Capacity can be increased at a fraction of the cost by a variety of measures, provided that it is accepted that the additional traffic will run at existing speeds.
It is not generally known that the Midland main line is, or was, four track all the way from London to Trent Junction, between Nottingham and Derby. This is because the additional tracks are separate, having been added for coal trains which trundled down to Brent sidings, on the edge of London, from a collection point at Toton in Nottinghamshire, where the Midland Railway build a huge marshalling yard. Beyond Derby, the main line to Manchester was severed between Matlock and Buxton, but the route remains intact and could be reinstated at a relatively modest cost, thereby providing a complete new route to Manchester with connections from the East Midlands.
South of Rugby - ie the most congested part of the West Coast Main Line, an additional route could be created by reinstating the Great Central and its associated connecting lines. There is a need to relieve the very busy section through Rugby, Coventry and Birmingham International, but that could be more usefully provided by constructing some kind of metro system and giving back the main line for the London traffic.
Last Wednesday afternoon, I spent a couple of hours working in a friend's garden. On Friday morning, ie about 36 hours later, I felt an itching sensation, scratched the area of skin and removed a particle which, on examination, turned out to be a tick. I noticed several other red inflamed areas nearby and took a shower. In the evening I felt the same thing in the groin area and removed another particle which was also a tick, and another again on my back which I never got to look at which might have been a tick, making between two and five tick bites in all. Ramadan tough trial for Muslims.
Ramadan starts next week. It occurs about eleven or twelve days earlier each year due to the lunar Islamic calendar. It is a peculiarly tough, indeed, cruel, fast, from dawn to sunset for a month. No water is allowed, so people get dehydrated. After sunset, the practice is to eat a very substantial meal, which means that they get a poor night's sleep as well. Many people will be fit for nothing next day, and certainly not for work.
I would not want to be on a bus driven by someone who has been following this regime. This year it is particularly hard on Muslims in northern latitudes where the nights are short. There are divergent views on how this problem should be dealt with. If Islam was meant to be a religion for the whole of mankind as it claims to be, the curious thing is that this was not foreseen at the outset. Travellers in classical times had long visited the far northern latitudes and the greater seasonal variation in day length must have been well known even in Saudi Arabia.
But one can continue in the same vein. The Romans used the Julian calendar with a year of So why, in the seventh century, would anyone have chosen to use a calendar with a year which was eleven days short? The main Linux desktops, KDE and Unity, seem to be getting heavier as time passes, with more and more added features. My main setup is a bit more complex, as I have two screens and need to use different keyboard layouts at times. XFCE was troublesome and then proved difficult to remove completely.
LXDE had issues with the keyboard layouts and wallpapers on two screens. Cinnamon seems to do the job without difficulty. It looks clean on the screen and runs fast. In future I shall probably install Cinnamon or Lubuntu LXDE to get a further few years' use from the old PCs that are available for nothing but are still good for a while. XFCE is a bit Mac-like and might suit people who are used to that style of screen layout. Whatever the case, unless the software demands it, there is no real need to use Windows, Macs or new computers of any kind for ordinary household use.
I went to the choir weekend at Vadstena in There is another one this October, to which we the choir has been invited. After the previous weekend, I wrote this, " With a building like Vadstena Abbey Church available - though there are others too, such as Varnhem, there are great possibilities as long as the building's acoustics are respected.
Why Latin? Because, first, the language has simple open vowels; second, it is pretty close to what would have been sung when the building had just been completed; and third, but most importantly, it would be worth inviting a teacher or teachers to give instruction in the reading and performance of Gregorian chant, possibly a monk from Solemnes.
On the Saturday evening, it would also be fitting to conclude with the sung Compline, like these French Benedictine monks, music which would be literally awesome in the Vadstena Abbey church. Whilst the convent church is an attractive building, it does not function particularly well as a space for the liturgy due to the stunning views from it. The convent church is very much of its time - the s, and one must indeed have concern for the future of that community itself, which seems to have had few, if any, vocations in recent years.
There is not in fact a serious shortage of vocations, but it is the traditional Catholic communities that are drawing in the present generation of young people. This too, would preferably be in Latin and include the correct Proper for the Sunday. Because of the complexity of these, it would probably be better to divide responsibility for singing the different parts - Introit, Gradual, Offertory and Communion - amongst parishes who could prepare them beforehand. The same applies, possibly, to the Offertory and Communion motets, which might be polyphonic, and perhaps also to the Ordinary.
Alternatively, or additionally, the opportunity could be taken to introduce some of the other Gregorian Mass settings, such as Mass XI Orbis Factor , and the austere Credo I. If I went, I would just get angry at the way another opportunity is being thrown away. It really is a tragedy that the director of music for the diocese does not appreciate the value of putting the main focus on the church's 3, year old musical heritage. If the main Sunday Mass would have been in the Extraordinary Form, I would have put my name down immediately.
No comments allowed. Is the Munich incident an instance of Sudden Jihad Syndrome? Does reading the book and saying the prayers lead to mental instability? Trying to make sense of the Koran demands, amongst other things, the performance of mental gymnastics amounting to the complete suspension of reason. Could this be part of the explanation? Disraeli notwithstanding, Jews in Britain have traditionally supported the Labour party since its formation at the beginning of the twentieth century.
This was to be expected, as most of the first and second generations of children of Jewish immigrants were working class, or in middle-class occupations such as teachers and in the public services. Although British Jews have assimilated, in many cases to the point of disappearance, and they have moved up in the economic hierarchy, their loyalty to Labour has continued. So what is behind the current wave of antisemitism in the Labour party? In part it is due to Israel's perceived mistreatment of the Palestinians, who are now seen as the underdogs and victims of Zionist oppression.
Whilst the Israeli government has often made the wrong decisions and continues to do so, there is not a government in the world which would act very differently in the same situation; even so, it should not be beyond criticism. The supporter of the underdogs have also been duped by a very effective Arab PR machine. Is criticism of Israel antisemitic? It depends on the track record of the people doing the criticism. If they have never spoken out against, for example, the actions of the Chinese government in Tibet, or Indonesia in Papua New Guinea, then their motives must be suspect.
Since it is indeed the case that many of the critics have their focus firmly on Israel, then they can be judged antisemitic. But what is the driving force behind this? It is necessary only to look at the list of names of the people who have had to be suspended from office. Thus does Islam corrupt the political process. The damage is probably irreversible. This is the end of a century-long relationship. Music can obviously not damage the brain in the way that a stroke or a blow to the head can. But the brain is a plastic organ - one might think of it as a self-wiring computer.
This means that if the wiring is faulty, its function will be impaired and it will in fact be damaged. We know that emotions and feelings can be affected by sound. There is the notorious effect of being exposed to 7Hz, a frequency just below the threshold of hearing, matching the theta wave frequency recorded by electroencephalagrams EEG ; there is a lot of literature on this subject. It is a frequency that can easily be generated by playing low-frequency chords on the organ. Music torture has been common practice for the CIA ever since it began its "enhanced interrogation program" in the early s.
The process is designed to "create fear, disorient … and prolong capture shock" in prisoners. Mark Hadsell, a member of the U. Psychological Operations team, described the efficacy of the tactic: " If you play it for 24 hours, your brain and body functions start to slide, your train of thought slows down and your will is broken. That's when we come in and talk to them. Clearly, then, sound is having a physiological effect. Then there are what are known as " earworms ", catchy pieces of music that continually repeat through a person's mind after it is no longer playing.
Although the mechanisms are not yet well-understood, memory is stored in the brain through some kind of change in the pattern of neural connections, so there is a physical change in the brain tissue itself. Stress gives rise to increased levels of cortisol, which also affect the brain tissue.