Building the Capacity of Partner States Through Security Force Assistance

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The perceived trade-off between quality and quantity is a false dichotomy. The U. Over time, these forces will have to metamorphose in size and composition ultimately to defend their country against external enemies. These countries will require residual U.

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Quantity has a quality of its own. Train forces iteratively to increase quality without compromising the availability of forces. Quality standards should be flexible. At first, a minimum standard is good enough, given the enemy and other key factors of the situation.

Building Security Forces and Ministerial Capacity: Iraq as a Primer

Once a force, or part of it, meets that standard, it can be raised and continually improved—especially as part of a coherent partnership program. The advisors, trainers, and war fighters continuously upgraded Iraqi combat skills, developed their leadership techniques, and improved maintenance and maintenance management procedures.

Balancing a force between the Army and the Police requires developing each institution at the right time for use at the right stage of the conflict. The relative requirements for Army and Police forces will change over time, as the state develops. Decelerate the growth and fielding of forces that are ill-suited for current or likely future situations on the ground. Police forces — especially beat-cops rather than paramilitary forces — are poorly suited for a COIN mission, as they cannot link to an effective legal system and cannot stand up to enemy forces. May 5, It has been viewed times.

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  7. What responsibilities do I have when using this report? Dates and time periods associated with this report. Geographical information about where this report originated or about its content. You Are Here: home unt libraries government documents department this report. Description This report provides the following elements: An overview of the SFA rationale focused primarily on Department of Defense support for and relations with foreign security forces.

    Physical Description 73 pages. Who People and organizations associated with either the creation of this report or its content. Author Livingston, Thomas K. The British vision is noteworthy for various reasons. In the first place, it acknowledges Capacity Building as a key function in military operations.


    Secondly, the British allow regular and Special Forces to cooperate in this type of operation. The reorganisation of British forces in order to accommodate this new capacity in the armed forces, as well as the doctrinal changes demonstrate the commitment of the British Ministry of Defence to this new concept, and the conviction that this is an important tool in foreign relations. In the Defence Strategic Guidance, SFA was mentioned as central to effective stability operations in an era in which US forces will no longer be able to execute these by themselves.

    The purpose of these new formations is to free regular Brigade Combat Teams BCTs from SFA missions — allowing BCTs to focus on conventional warfare — and to improve on the hitherto ad hoc nature of training and assistance missions. The US army, like the British, has recognised the necessity for specially trained soldiers to perform the task and to operate together with different partners, domestically as well as internationally. The course presents the various host-nation challenges anticipated in an underdeveloped country. The American SFA approach is also interesting because capability is included, as well as capacity.

    This indicates that the US is not only interested in boosting existing forces, but is also willing to introduce new capabilities to the recipient forces, acting as a force multiplier.

    Security Force Assistance: Just Do It | Small Wars Journal

    The necessity of American SFABs was exemplified by their first deployment to Afghanistan in , to address the failing security situation there. As the Dutch armed forces do not mention SFA, doctrinal overlap is hard to establish. As SFAB personnel will train, advise and assist indigenous forces in planning and executing combined operations, their mission is similar to the Dutch OMLT teams in Afghanistan in As both the SFABs and OMLT operate in a conflict situation, the similarities extend not only to the role and tasks, but also to the phases of the conflict.

    The CBMI mission in Iraq is also coherent with American SFA doctrine, although it is not possible for most Dutch CBMI personnel to conduct combined operations due to national caveats; their tasks are limited to training, although the mission is conducted in a conflict area. Dutch military doctrine does not support deployment by regular forces involving training, advice and assistance. Nonetheless, a survey of the doctrine of two strategic partners concerning training, advising, equipping and mentoring foreign forces shows that the British concept of Capacity Building is coherent with Dutch participation in ACOTA missions.

    The OMLT mission in Afghanistan finds itself in the grey area between post-conflict Capacity Building and assistance during crises or conflict. Either way, it can be concluded that these contemporary Dutch deployments can be conceptually related to US and UK doctrine. Both nations have observed that senior enlisted personnel and officers whose job is to train, advise and mentor foreign forces require additional training and education, and that selecting personnel from combat units for training missions is detrimental to the combat-readiness of those units.

    The US and the UK, two strategic partners of the Netherlands, have understood the need for a sound doctrine, in combination with thorough selection, education and training of advisors, and the missions of all three nations have substantial overlap. Therefore, the question remains why the Dutch armed forces are reluctant to adjust their doctrine or introduce organisational adjustments such as additional training and education, or personnel selection.

    To integrate and emulate aspects of the British and American approaches to military assistance into Dutch military operations would be beneficial to current and future Dutch deployments that are a mixture of UK Capacity Building and US Security Force Assistance concepts. As this article has highlighted, SFA as a military activity has little discourse, and scant foundation in Dutch military theory and doctrine.

    Since such missions, regardless of the term used to describe them, are expanding in number due to perceived low costs, small footprint, lack of public scrutiny and a perceived positive cost-benefit ratio, further research is needed to establish the benefits and challenges of these missions. The different terms cover activities on the tactical, operational and strategic level.

    These terms might or might not include equipping, training and conducting joint operations. It is also not clear whether SFA is a different way to project military power, a method of cost-reduction, or a tailor-made form of military deployment.

    Finally, Military Assistance is not a term applicable to Dutch training missions. As an alternative, Security Force Assistance is the preferable designation. It covers the Dutch activities completely, it connects the Dutch armed forces doctrinally with the US, UK and NATO, and it improves the interoperability capabilities of the Dutch military, by building on allied research, experiences, and doctrine. Pursuing these concepts could improve the capabilities of the forces involved in SFA, promote the safety and stability of weak states, and diminish the pre-conditions for insurgency and terrorism.

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